What is Biofilm?

POSTED Nov 17, 2020

Biofilm is a rapidly reproducing colony of various microorganisms surrounded by their protective slime in an aqueous environment. They grow on surfaces where water doesn’t flow and prefer environments where water is stagnant and void of sanitizer. In hot tubs, they are often found in the pipes where the water flow has been stopped or dramatically reduced (i.e. diverter valves isolate certain therapy return lines and waterfalls often have the flow stopped altogether, etc.). In pipes with no regular flow, the sanitizer quickly diminishes and the microorganisms move to the pipes surface where they begin to form biofilms. Biofilms will also establish and grow in tubs that experience inconsistent or non-existent sanitizer residuals. Ineffective, incomplete or a lack of attention to water care systems can also lead to biofilm formations. Biofilm becomes noticeable after water flow is returned to isolated pipes and is sheared off and ‘blown’ back into the hot tub. These small, floating fragments of biofilm resemble tiny pieces of ‘skin’ or torn up pieces of tissue paper.

Removal: (do not use hot tub during this process)
  1. Ensure the hot tub water is flowing freely through all pipes, waterfalls, etc. by adjusting diverter and/or shut off valves and leave this way for duration of treatment period.
  2. Properly balance the hot tub water with particular attention to balancing the pH within the proper range of 7.4 – 7.6. Test periodically over the next 3 – 5 days to ensure pH continuously stays within this range.
  3. Elevate bromine or chlorine residual to 5 – 10 ppm. There is no need to exceed 10 ppm. Maintain this elevated level for the next 3 – 5 days. Use Dazzle™ Bromine Granules or Dazzle™ Stabilized Chlorine Granules to boost the level and maintain it. Test regularly to ensure the level stays consistently within 5 – 10 ppm.
  4. Apply 150 mL of Dazzle™ Algae Clear 60 per 1,000 L of hot tub water after the bromine or chlorine residual has been elevated to 5 – 10 ppm.
  5. Run the high speed pump(s) periodically over the next 3 – 5 days to flush the pipes of biofilm and keep it circulating in the water. The more frequent the high speed pump operates, the faster the clean-up will be.
  6. As an added step to speed results, consider adding 2 Mineraluxe Cubes by unwrapping and placing in the hot tubs skimmer basket or dropping into the footwell.
  7. After a minimum of 3 days, if the water is clear and the signs of biofilm have diminished or are gone, move to the next step. If not, ensure steps #2 and #3 are still in check and repeat step #4. Continue Step #5 for another 2 days.
  8. Once visible signs of biofilm are gone or after 5 days, stop additions of chlorine or bromine as in #3 above and allow the residual to lower to less than 5.0 ppm.
  9. With chlorine or bromine level less than 5.0 ppm, apply 1 bottle of Dazzle™ Drain Prep, as per label directions. Remove filter cartridge and wait minimum 24 hours before moving to next step.
  10. Clean filter cartridge(s) with Dazzle™ Rapid Action Filter Cleanse as per label directions.
  11. After minimum 24 hours, drain hot tub, clean inside tub with Dazzle™ Tub Cleanse and follow proper procedure for refilling the hot tub.
  1. Always return diverter valve(s) to positions that allow flow through all return lines and therapy jets after hot tub use and for regular maintenance.
  2. Strongly consider using Mineraluxe for Hot Tubs as your routine maintenance system of care. Mineraluxe is exceptional at preventing biofilm from forming in hot tub environments, along with many other benefits.
  3. If Mineraluxe is not used, follow these key steps of the Dazzle Hot Tub Care System
    1. apply Dazzle™ Stain & Scale 1 with every fresh fill as per label directions.
    2. apply Dazzle™ Stain & Scale 2, Dazzle™ Amaze or Dazzle Amaze Plus and Dazzle™ Botanical Cleanse each week as per label directions.
  4. Continuously maintain pH and chlorine or bromine levels in proper ranges.
  5. Use Dazzle™ Drain Prep prior to each drain as per label directions.